Plants on substrate surface, resembling small, many-branched tree. Roots emerging immediately on underside of stems. Horizontal stems branching, stolonlike, rooting where they touch ground. Upright shoots usually 1 to each arch of horizontal stems, to 3.5 mm diam., unequally, dichotomously branched with well-differentiated lateral branchlets much branched. Leaves not in distinct ranks, not imbricate, monomorphic, generally ascending, linear-needlelike, margin entire. Gemmiferous branchlets and gemmae absent. Strobili solitary, sessile, nodding to pendent, tip blunt; sporophylls smaller than vegetative leaves. Sporangia nearly globose. Spore surface rugulate; sides convex at equator. Gametophytes photosynthetic, on substrate surface, pincushion-shaped; ring meristem absent. Palhinhaea is a very common genus in Lycopodiaceae worldwide.