Colonial perennial, much like no. 2 [Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill.], but the lvs narrower, lanceolate, tapering gradually to the pungent tip, and the fls smaller, 1.5-2.3 cm overall; 2n=12. Native of Europe, occasionally intr. in waste places in our range.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.