Plants annual, tufted. Culms 9-150 cm, clustered or solitary. Sheaths
smooth, glabrous; ligules 2.5-5(10) mm, obtuse, entire; blades
3-13.5(23) cm long, 2.5-14 mm wide, scabrous. Panicles 1-4(8) cm long,
0.7-2 cm wide, ovoid to almost globose, unilateral. Spikelets 7-14 mm;
subsessile or shortly pedicellate, pedicels to 1.6 mm. Sterile spikelets
with 6-18 florets; glumes and lemmas similar, subulate to linear-lanceolate,
glabrous, sometimes scabridulous, awned, awns to 8 mm. Fertile spikelets
with 1-5 florets, glumes and lemmas dissimilar; glumes 5.5-12 mm long,
0.4-0.9 mm wide, narrowly lanceolate, laterally compressed, hyaline, glabrous,
1-veined, keeled, awned, awns 0.5-2.2 mm; rachilla internodes 0.9-1.3
mm; lemmas 4-7 mm, slightly dorsally compressed, chartaceous or coriaceous,
not keeled, lower 1/2 smooth, glabrous, distal 1/2 villous or scabrid, apices
hyaline, ciliolate, entire or bidentate, awned, awns 5-18(25) mm; anthers
1-4 mm. 2n = 14.
Cynosurus echinatus is native to southern Europe. It is now established
in North America, South America, and Australia. It usually grows in dry open habitats but has also been found at the edge of salt marshes.