Perennials (possibly flowering first year), 5-30(-45+) cm (roots or rootstocks producing tuberiform swellings 1-15 cm below soil surface). Stems usually scapiform, usually branching from bases, proximally glabrous or sparsely to densely pilosulous. Cauline leaves 0(-3), proximal mostly lanceolate, margins usually pinnately lobed, distal linear-filiform, margins entire. Heads borne singly or 2-3 in loose, corymbiform arrays. Calyculi: bractlets 8 in 1(-2) series, linear to subulate, 3-8 mm. Involucres cylindric to turbinate, 17-25 mm. Phyllaries 13-22. Florets 40-60+; anthers 4.5-5 mm (pollen equatorial diameters 46-52 µm). Cypselae: bodies stramineous, 4-5 mm, beaks 6-7 mm; pappi 10-12 mm. 2n = 24. Flowering Apr-Jun. Disturbed sites, calcareous, loamy, or sandy soils; 100-800 m; Kans., Okla., Tex. Pyrrhopappus grandiflorus has been reported from Arkansas and New Mexico; I have seen no specimens of it from those states.