LEAVES: thick, obovate, usually less than 1½ times as long as wide; veins thick, prominent. NOTES: See also parent taxons for further description. Hanging gardens, canyons, stream banks: Coconino, Mohave, Navajo cos.; 884-1433 m (2900-4700 ft); Apr; NV, NM. REFERENCES: Christie, Kyle, Michael Currie, Laura Smith Davis, Mar-Elise Hill, Suzanne Neal, and Tina Ayers.2006. Vascular Plants of Arizona: Rhamnaceae. CANOTIA 2(1): 23-46.