Rather delicate plants from a long, slender, rhizome, without stolons; lvs glabrous beneath, minutely spreading-hairy above, 1.5-3 cm at anthesis, later larger, crenate, broadly ovate-cordate, with a narrow basal sinus and converging or overlapping lobes; fls numerous, 1.5 cm wide; sep eciliate; pet pale violet, beardless, the spur large and blunt, 4-7 mm; frs small, stoutly ellipsoid or globose, 4-6 mm; seeds buff; 2n=24. Cold mt. woods and shady ravines; circumboreal, s. in Amer. to n. Pa., n. O., Wis., Minn., S.D., and B.C. May-July.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.