PLANT: Caulescent or acaulescent annual or perennial herbs. LEAVES: simple, dissected or compound, basal, cauline or both, stipulate, petiolate, alternate or opposite. INFLORESCENCE: flowers solitary, axillary or scapose. FLOWERS: sepals subequal, auriculate at base; petals unequal, the lower petal shorter or longer than others, the base elongated into a spur or gibbous on underside; lateral 2 petals generally spreading, generally bearded at base; upper 2 petals equal, erect or spreading; lower 2 stamens with nectaries projecting into the spur or sac; cleistogamous flowers present in many spp. FRUITS: ovoid to oblong, glabrous or hairy. SEEDS ca. 15‑20, usually ovoid, with a prominent caruncle. NOTES: Ca. 400 spp.; worldwide. (Latin: Viola, a classical name.) Clausen, J. 1964. Madroño 17:173‑197. REFERENCES: Little, R. John. Violaceae. 2001. J. Ariz. - Nev. Acad. Sci. Volume 33(1).