Perennial subshrub or herb Stem
: erect to trailing, usually prickly, often short-lived. Sometimes stems are biennial, with vegetative growth occurring in the first year and flowers and fruit produced the second year. Leaves
: alternate, having an often prickly stalk with narrow stipules at the base, usually compound with three to five leaflets, sometimes simple, variable in size, toothed or lobed. Biennial stems usually have compound leaves the first year and have both compound and simple leaves the second year. Flowers
: sometimes unisexual but usually bisexual, white to pink or red, usually borne on an inflorescence with the terminal flowers opening first (determinate), sometimes solitary, having numerous stamens and pistils, club-shaped to thread-shaped styles, and two side-by-side ovules (only one maturing). Pistils are attached to a convex to conic, enlarged end of the stalk (receptacle) which usually lengthens in fruit. Sepals
: usually five, often subtended by five bracts, fused at the base, with lobes that are spreading to reflexed or meet at the edges but do not overlap (valvate). Petals
: usually five, spoon-shaped to inversely egg-shaped or elliptic, erect to spreading, sometimes short-lived. Fruit
: a cluster of small fleshy fruits (sometimes dry), each having a hard center seed (drupelets). Drupelets usually fall from the plant together but sometimes fall separately, and the receptacle may fall with the drupelets or remain on the stalk.
Flowering: spring to early summer
Habitat and ecology: Usually found in disturbed habitats, often in thickets, woods, or edges of woods. Some Rubus species are native, while others are introduced and sometimes escape into natural areas.
Notes: The genus Rubus includes blackberries, raspberries, thimbleberries, and dewberries. Species within the genus hybridize readily, adding to the already complicated taxonomy of Rubus.
Etymology: Rubus is the Latin name for bramble and also means red.
Author: The Morton Arboretum