Trees to 50m; trunk to 0.9m diam., straight, little tapering; crown mostly conic at maturity. Bark scaly, not evidently furrowed, orange- to purple-brown. Branches spreading, ascending at tips. Leaves 5--8cm ´ 1--2mm, yellow-green, apex acute. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, shedding seeds and falling soon thereafter, nearly symmetric, mostly spreading, rarely in whorls, more often paired or solitary, mid and lower apophyses mostly shallowly domed. Montane forests; 400--3500m; Calif., Nev., Oreg., Wash.; Mexico in Baja California. Pinus contorta var. murrayana is the tallest and best-formed variety of this species.