PLANTS: Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs. STEMS: 4-angled, the angles sometimes expanded to obscure the sides. LEAVES: opposite, but appearing whorled, the stipules leaf-like. FLOWERS: perfect or imperfect in panicles or axillary cymes, the basic unit usually a cymule of 3 flowers; calyx absent; corolla usually rotate, sometimes campanulate, the lobes usually 4; styles 2 usually fused at base. FRUIT: of 2 nutlets (in ours), or sometimes berry-like. NOTES: Ca. 400 spp. worldwide, especially temperate regions. (Greek: gala =milk, from use of some species for curdling). REFERENCES: Dempster, Lauramay T. 1995. Rubiaceae. J. Ariz. - Nev. Sci. 29(l): 29.