Glabrous annual, 1-6 dm, often branched from the base; cauline lvs oblong-spatulate, 1-4 cm, obtuse, finely serrulate, the upper truncate or even subcordate at the sessile base; lvs subtending the umbel similar; lvs of the umbel shorter and relatively wider, broadly oblong to ovate or deltoid- ovate; rays of the primary umbel commonly 3, repeatedly dichotomous; involucre delicate, 0.8 mm; ovary and fr beset with numerous conic to cylindric processes, the fr 2.5 mm; seeds thick-lenticular, 1.5-1.8 mm, marked with a reticulum of fine, sharp, low ridges. Prairies, barrens, and rocky hills; Minn. and Mo. to Mont. and Tex., w. to the Pacific. May, June. (E. dictyosperma; Tithymalus arkansanus; T. missouriensis; Galarhoeus a.; G. m.)
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
©The New York Botanical Garden. All rights reserved. Used by permission.
Kearney and Peebles 1969, McDougall 1973
Duration: Annual Nativity: Native Lifeform: Forb/Herb General: Glabrous annual to 45 cm tall, simply branching to just below the inflorescence, stems deep red to green. Leaves: Alternate, oblong to spatulate, to 4 cm long, margins serrulate, sometimes red-tinged, especially near the tips, sessile or borne on short petioles, leaves which subtend the inflorescence opposite, elliptic to ovate, sessile, with crenulate margins, forming a cup around the inflorescence, these sometimes lighter in color than the surrounding leaves. Flowers: Inflorescences borne in forked rays, 3-rayed or born on several short branches with 1 or more cyathia, involucres campanulate, to 1 mm long, glands yellow, oval, without appendages, not concealed. Fruits: Globose capsules to 3 mm long, warty, with warty brown or black seeds to 1.5 mm long. Ecology: Found on plains and hills from 3,500-7,500 ft (1067-2286 m); flowers March-April. Notes: Distinguishing characters for this species are the yellow involucre glands without appendages and the warty capsules. Ethnobotany: Specific use of the species is unknown, but the genus was used as an infusion to treat diabetes, mouth, and skin sores, and as a bath to treat fevers, chickenpox, smallpox, and gonorrhea. In infusion of the roots was taken to invoke diarrhea. Etymology: Euphorbia is named for Euphorbus, Greek physician of Juba II, King of Mauretania, while spathulata means shaped like a spatula. Synonyms: Many, see Tropicos Editor: LCrumbacher, 2011