Tree to 8 m, or sometimes an arborescent shrub, the twigs glabrous or slightly hairy when young, armed with stout thorns 3-4.5 cm; lvs firm, the upper side often strigose when young, dark green, glossy, and glabrous at maturity, the lower side glabrous to ±persistently hairy, the blade elliptic or rhombic to ovate or oblong-obovate, shallowly lobed especially above the middle, mostly 3-6 נ2-5 cm; petiole 1-2 cm, usually eglandular; fls 1-1.7 cm wide, in glabrous to villous compound cymes; sep glandular-serrate, becoming reflexed and often eventually deciduous; fr bright red, 0.7-1.2 cm thick; nutlets mostly 2-3(4), rounded at the ends, with a large, deep pit on the inner face. Usually in dry or rocky ground; N. Engl. and se. Can. to Pa. and in the mts. to N.C. and Tenn., w. to Man., Mo., Neb., and w. U.S. (C. laxiflora)
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.