Fremont's barberry, more...
[Mahonia fremontii (Torr.) Fedde, more]
Shrubs evergreen, 1-4.5 m. Stems ± dimorphic, with elongate primary and short or somewhat elongate axillary shoots. Bark of 2d-year stems light brown or grayish purple, glabrous. Bud scales 2-4 mm, deciduous. Spines absent. Leaves 5-9(-11)-foliolate; petioles 0.2-0.8(-3) cm. Leaflet blades thick and rigid; surfaces abaxially dull, papillose, adaxially dull, glaucous; terminal leaflet stalked in most or all leaves, blade 1-2.6(-4) × 0.7-1.8(-2.5) cm, 1-2.5 times as long as wide; lateral leaflet blades elliptic to ovate or orbiculate, 1-3-veined from base, base obtuse or truncate, margins strongly crispate, toothed or lobed, with 2-5 teeth 2-6 mm high tipped with spines to 0.8-2.2 × 0.2-0.3 mm, apex obtuse to acuminate. Inflorescences racemose, lax, 3-6-flowered, 2.5-6.5 cm; bracteoles membranous, apex acuminate. Flowers: anther filaments with distal pair of recurved lateral teeth. Berries yellow or red to brown, ± glaucous, spheric, 12-18 mm, dry, inflated. Flowering spring (Apr-Jun). Slopes and flats in desert grassland and pinyon-juniper woodland; 1100-2400(-3400) m; Ariz., Calif., Colo., Nev., N.Mex., Utah. Berberis fremontii is susceptible to infection by Puccinia graminis . The Apache Indians used Berberis fremontii for ceremonial purposes; the Hopi used it medicinally to heal gums (D. E. Moermann 1986).
Plant: Shrubs to 3 m tall Leaves: odd-pinnate, 3-10 cm long; leaflets (3-)5-7(-9), thick, rigid, ovate to lanceolate, slightly glaucous, dull gray-green, 10-25 mm long, 5-15 mm wide; veins obscure; teeth of leaflet margin 3-4(-6) pairs, 2-4 mm long, each tooth bearing a spine 1-3 mm long INFLORESCENCE: 3-10 flowered, racemose to subumbellate, 2-7 cm long; pseudopedicels (4-)8-12(-15) mm long; bracts 1-3 mm long; bracteoles 2, ovate, acute, reddish, 1.5 mm long, one appressed to the calyx, the other 4-6 mm below it Flowers: sepals 6 or 9; outer sepals 0.50-1.75 mm long, ovate, subacute, whitish-yellow; inner sepals 6.5-7.0 mm long, obovate, rounded, slenderly clawed; petals 6, 3.5 mm long, the apices entire, the bases scarcely clawed or cuneate with oblong, acute, marginal glands; stamens 4 mm, subtruncate to slightly rounded; filaments with two lateral teeth at apex; ovules 5-8 Fruit: berry, ovoid, yellow, red or blue-black, 1.5 cm long, sometimes becoming more or less dry and inflated at maturity, bearing sessile stigma; SEEDS ellipsoid, dull reddish-purple, 3 mm long Misc: Mts. of n and c AZ; 1200-2150 m (4000-7000 ft); Apr-Jul REFERENCES: Laferrière, Joseph E. 2001. Berberidaceae. J. Ariz. – Nev. Acad. Sci. Volume 26(1).