American black nightshade, more...
[Solanum americanum var. nodiflorum (Jacq.) Edmonds, more]
PLANT: Annual or short-lived perennial herbs, sometimes turning woody with age, usually greater than 1 m tall, without tubers or stolons, unarmed; herbage glabrous to pubescent to variously strigose; stems terete to angled, sometimes with small, antrorsely curved teeth on the angles. LEAVES: alternate or sub-opposite, simple, ovate to lance-elliptic, 2–9 cm long, 1–5 cm wide; margin entire to coarsely-toothed; base sub-truncate to attenuate; apex broadly acute to acuminate; petiole (1–)2–6(–8) cm long. INFLORESCENCE: umbel-like racemes, lateral, borne between nodes or sometimes at nodes opposite leaves, (1–)3–8(–12)-flowered; peduncle 8–30 mm long. FLOWERS: actinomorphic (Fig. 3A); pedicel 2–12 mm long; calyx 0.5–2 mm long, the lobes broadly lanceolate to rounded, about equal to or 1/2 as long as the tube; corolla rotate-stellate to reflexed, white or white tinged with purple, 2–6 mm in diameter; style included to 1 mm longer than anthers, pubescent ± half its length; stamens ± equal, (0.5–)1–1.5(–2) mm long; anthers connivent; filaments 1/2 or less as long as anthers, 1 mm long or less. FRUITS: subglobose, 4–8 mm wide, green, orange-brown or blackish at maturity, not enclosed in the calyx; sclerotic granules 0–5; seeds orbicular, minutely pitted, 1–1.3 mm wide. NOTES: Agricultural areas, waste places and riparian areas: La Paz, Maricopa Mohave, Pima, Yavapai cos. (Fig. 1B); 50–1800 m (200–6000 ft); throughout the year; s. and w. U.S.; Mex; probably native to Eurasia. REFERENCES: Chiang, F. and L.R. Landrum. Vascular Plants of Arizona: Solanaceae Part Three: Lycium. CANOTIA 5 (1): 17–26, 2009.