purple pricklypear, more...
[Opuntia violacea var. macrocentra (Engelm.) L. Benson]
, erect to decumbent, to 1 m. Stem segments
not easily detached, purple (particularly under stress) to green with purple near areoles and margins of stem segment, flattened, broadly obovate to subcircular, thickish, 7-20 × 6-18 cm; areoles 6-8(-10) per diagonal row across midstem segment, elliptic to circular, 3-7 × 2.5-5 mm; wool tan to whitish, aging black. Spines
0 or 1-15+ per areole, few and at distal areoles or many and on most areoles, usually erect to spreading, appearing unruly, sometimes deflexed, straight or curving, acicular, often flexible, subterete to flattened basally; longer ones reddish brown to ± black (rarely yellow to red in w Texas), or partly to wholly white, 30-120(-170) mm; reflexed spine rarely present, 1 in some areoles, short, whitish. Glochids
dense in crescent at adaxial edge of areole and well-developed subapical tuft, reddish yellow, aging brown, 2-3(-6) mm. Flowers:
inner tepals yellow with red basal portions, obovate-apiculate, 25-40 mm; filaments and anthers yellowish; style cream; stigma lobes green. Fruits
red to purplish, obovoid to barrel-shaped, 25-40 × 20-23 mm, fleshy or ± juicy, glabrous, spineless; umbilicus 8-10 mm deep; areoles 22-44. Seeds
yellowish, suborbicular to reniform, angled, 5-7 × 3.5-5 mm, sides flattened; girdle protruding 0.8-1.2 mm. 2n
= 22, 44. Flowering spring (Mar-Jun). Desert uplands, grasslands, oak woodlands, sandy desert flats, rocky hills and valleys; 900-1600 m; Ariz., N.Mex., Tex.; Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Sonora). Opuntia macrocentra
is represented by relatively short and compact shrubs with a glochid pattern of a dense crescent in the adaxial edge of the areoles like the species and a much taller tuft of spreading glochids. This variety, which grows along the western side of the Rio Grande in Big Bend, Texas, appears best interpreted as a tetraploid hybrid between tetraploid putative parents, Opuntia macrocentra
and O. tortispina
Plant: shrub, erect to decumbent, to 1 m tall. PADS all purple to green with purple near areoles and pad margins, glabrous, broadly obovate to subcircular, thickish, 7-20 cm long, 6-18 cm broad; AREOLES 6-8(-18) in a row diagonal across midpad, elliptic to circular, 3-7 mm long, 2.5-5 mm wide; wool tan to whitish, aging black Leaves: SPINES absent or along distal pad margin to at most areoles, usually erect to spreading, sometimes deflexed, straight or curving, acicular and often flexible, subterete to flattened basally, 0-15+ per areole, the larger ones 5-12(-17) cm long, red-brown to black (rarely yellow to red), partly to wholly chalky white. GLOCHIDS reddish yellow, aging brown, dense in an apical crescent and a well developed subapical tuft, reddish yellow aging brown, 2-3(-6) mm long Flowers: inner tepals yellow with red bases, obovate-apiculate, 2.5-4 cm long; filaments yellowish; style cream; fresh stigmas green Fruit: FRUITS purplish, obovoid to barrel-shaped, spineless, fleshy, sometimes slightly juicy, 2.5-4 cm long, 2-2.3 cm in diameter; umbilicus 8-10 mm deep; areoles 22-44. SEEDS yellowish, suborbicular to reniform, angled, the sides flattened, 5-7 mm long, 3.5-5 mm wide; girdle protruding 0.8-1.2 mm. Misc: Sandy desert flats to rocky hills and valleys, desertic uplands, grasslands or oak woodlands; 900-1600 m (2900-5300 ft); Mar-Jun REFERENCES: Pinkava, Donald J. Cactaceae. 2003. J. Ariz. – Nev. Acad. Sci. Volume 35(2).