Loosely tufted, often widely radiating or prostrate, 3-8 dm; principal lvs basal or nearly so, evergreen, with long, stiffly erect blade to 4 dm, 4-10 mm wide, with strong, closely spaced veins, densely and finely rough-puberulent (or merely scabrous) beneath, glabrous and usually glaucous above, long-tapering at base; cauline lvs progressively reduced, the uppermost bladeless or with a blade to 3 cm; ligules 0.2-0.7 mm, truncate, ciliolate; panicle slender, racemiform, 3-7 cm, the paired branchlets each with a single spikelet; glumes elliptic or broadly ovate, herbaceous, distinctly 5- or 7-veined, 6-8.5 mm, obtuse to abruptly acute or mucronate; lemma 5-7 mm, pale green or yellowish, finely appressed-hairy, its flexuous awn 6-14 mm; 2n=46, 48. Upland woods; Nf. and Que. to B.C., s. to Pa., n. Ind., S.D., N.M., and Utah.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.