Culms 2-35 cm, erect to decumbent, smooth, glabrous, branching at any node. Sheaths of upper leaves strongly inflated, margins expanded, enclosing the lowest spikelets; ligules to 1.5 mm; blades to 1-3(10) cm long, 1-3 mm wide, adaxial surfaces scabrid. Spikes 1-15 cm, solitary, curved and twisted, rigid, with 2-20 spikelets. Spikelets 4.5-7.5 mm, generally slightly longer than the internodes, more or less cleistogamous. Glumes lanceolate, acuminate, keels rarely slightly winged; anthers 0.5-1.3 mm. 2n = 32, 36, 38, 42.
Parapholis incurva is established at various locations on the coasts of the contiguous United States. It grows in both poorly drained and well drained disturbed soils at and above the high tide mark. It tends to grow in more saline soils, and at lower elevations with respect to the tide, than P. strigosa.
Densely tufted, the culms 5-25 cm, upcurved from a decumbent base; blades 1-5 cm; ligule to 1 mm; spike elongate, curved, to 10 cm, 2 mm thick, with 10-20 spikelets, the base included in the upper sheath; glumes 4.5-7 mm, in the uppermost spikelet opposite; anthers 0.5-0.9 mm; cleistogamous; 2n=28. Muddy seashores and marshes; native of Europe, intr. in our range along the coast from N.J. to N.C. (Pholiurus i.)
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.