Pinus edulis Engelm.
Family: Pinaceae
twoneedle pinyon,  more...
[Pinus cembroides var. edulis (Engelm.) Voss,  more]
Pinus edulis image
Max Licher  
Shrubs or trees to 21m; trunk to 0.6m diam., strongly tapering, erect; crown conic, rounded, dense. Bark red-brown, shallowly and irregularly furrowed, ridges scaly, rounded. Branches persistent to near trunk base; twigs pale red-brown to tan, rarely glaucous, aging gray-brown to gray, glabrous to papillose-puberulent. Buds ovoid to ellipsoid, red-brown, 0.5--1cm, resinous. Leaves (1--)2(--3) per fascicle, upcurved, persisting 4--6 years, 2--4cm ยด (0.9--)1--1.5mm, connivent, 2-sided (1-leaved fascicles with leaves 2-grooved, 3-leaved fascicles with leaves 3-sided), blue-green, all surfaces marked with pale stomatal bands, particularly the adaxial, margins entire or finely serrulate, apex narrowly acute to subulate; sheath 0.5--0.7cm, scales soon recurved, forming rosette, shed early. Pollen cones ellipsoid, ca. 7mm, yellowish to red-brown. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, shedding seeds and falling soon thereafter, spreading, symmetric, ovoid before opening, depressed-ovoid to nearly globose when open, ca. (3.5--)4(--5)cm, pale yellow- to pale red-brown, resinous, nearly sessile to short-stalked; apophyses thickened, raised, angulate; umbo subcentral, slightly raised or depressed, truncate or umbilicate. Seeds mostly ellipsoid to obovoid; body 10--15mm, brown, wingless. 2 n =24. Dry mountain slopes, mesas, plateaus, and pinyon-juniper woodland; 1500--2100(--2700)m; Ariz., Calif., Colo., N.Mex., Okla., Tex., Utah, Wyo.; Mexico in Chihuahua. Pinus edulis var. fallax Little ( P . californiarum subsp. fallax (Little) D.K.Bailey) appears to combine features of P . edulis and P . monophylla . More study is needed. Seeds of Pinus edulis , the commonest southwestern United States pinyon, are much eaten and traded by Native Americans.

Pinyon ( Pinus edulis ) is the state tree of New Mexico.

Perry 1991, FNA 1993, Kearney and Peebles 1969, Heil et al. 2013
Common Name: twoneedle pinyon Duration: Perennial Nativity: Native Lifeform: Tree General: Small trees or large shrubs to 15 m tall but usually shorter; trunk to 60 cm in diameter, short and branching close to the ground; crown dense and compact, conic when young and becoming rounded and irregular with age; bark grayish to reddish brown, irregularly and shallowly furrowed. Needles: In sheathed clusters (fascicles) of 2 needles, rarely 1 or 3, sharp-pointed and often upcurved, 2-4 cm long and 1-1.5 mm thick, grayish blue-green, persisting 4-6 years; sheaths thin, 5-7 mm long, recurved into a rosette and deciduous. Cones: Ovoid and resinous before opening; mature, open cones are 3-5 cm long and 3-6 cm wide, reddish-orange, with thick blunt scales up to 12 mm wide; cones mature in 2 years, shedding their seeds before falling off the tree at the end of the second growing season. Seeds: Brown, 10-13 mm long, mostly ellipsoid to obovoid, wingless. Ecology: Found on dry slopes and flats, from 5,000-7,000 ft (1524-2134 m). Distribution: w OK to WY and UT, south to TX, NM, AZ, and n MEX. Notes: Characterized by having 2 needles per sheath (fascicle), this is the common pinyon pine of the four-corners region, the best known of the pine-nut producing species, and the state tree of New Mexico. Its range overlaps P. cembroides (a pinyon pine with 3 needles per fascicle) in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico, and P. monophylla (with 1 needle per fascicle) from southeastern California to southwestern Utah. Hybrids do occur. The regional drought and bark beetle infestation of 2002-2003 caused a massive die-off of this species. Ethnobotany: The pitch was used on sores and cuts and used as an emetic; the needles were burned and the smoke inhaled for colds; a tea of the leaves was used as an expectorant and a tuberculosis remedy; needles were burned for purification; the plant was used widely for ceremonially purposes; and the nuts are a fine source of food and are actively harvested and traded in the present day. Etymology: Pinus is the classical Latin name for pine trees; edulis means edible. Synonyms: Pinus cembroides var. edulis Editor: SBuckley 2010, AHazelton 2017
Pinus edulis image
Max Licher  
Pinus edulis image
Max Licher  
Pinus edulis image
Max Licher  
Pinus edulis image
L.R. Landrum  
Pinus edulis image
L.R. Landrum  
Pinus edulis image
Patrick Alexander  
Pinus edulis image
Patrick Alexander  
Pinus edulis image
Patrick Alexander  
Pinus edulis image
Patrick Alexander  
Pinus edulis image
Patrick Alexander  
Pinus edulis image
Patrick Alexander  
Pinus edulis image
Patrick Alexander  
Pinus edulis image
Zachery Berry  
Pinus edulis image
Zachery Berry  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
ASU Fruit & Seed Collection  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
ASU Fruit & Seed Collection  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Rebekah Downard  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Mona Terwedow  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Rebekah Downard  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Wood, Sara  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Kirstin Phillips  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
ASU Fruit & Seed Collection  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Rebekah Downard  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Rebekah Downard  
Pinus edulis image
Wood, Sara  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
R. Justin DeRose  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Steas, M.  
Pinus edulis image
Kirstin Phillips  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Stephen Stern  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
ASU Fruit & Seed Collection  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
ASU Fruit & Seed Collection  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Rebekah Downard  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Mona Terwedow  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Rebekah Downard  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Wood, Sara  
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Pinus edulis image
Rebekah Downard