Perennials, 10-30(-100+) cm. Stems simple or distally branched. Basal leaves: petioles 10-30(-120) mm, expanding into obovate to spatulate blades 12-35(-50+) × 8-20(-30) mm, margins usually pinnately lobed (lobes 3-7+) and/or irregularly toothed. Cauline leaves petiolate or sessile; blades oblanceolate or spatulate to lanceolate or linear, 30-80+ × 2-15+ mm, margins of mid-stem leaves usually irregularly toothed proximally and distally. Involucres 12-20+ mm diam. Phyllaries (the larger) 2-3 mm wide. Ray florets usually 13-34+, rarely 0; laminae 12-20(-35+) mm. Ray cypselae 1.5-2.5 mm, apices usually coronate or auriculate. 2n = 18, 36, 54, 72, 90. Flowering spring-fall. Disturbed places, meadows, seeps, clearings; 0-2000 m; introduced; Alta., B.C., Ont., Que., Sask.; Alaska, Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Fla., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Mass., Mich., Mo., Mont., Nev., N.Mex., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Utah, Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.; Europe, widely adventive. Some botanists (e.g., W. J. Cody 1996) have treated Leucanthemum ircutianum de Candolle, with blades of mid and distal cauline leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate and not ± pinnate at bases, as distinct from L. vulgare.
Rhizomatous perennial 2-8 dm, simple or nearly so, glabrous or inconspicuously hairy; basal lvs oblanceolate or spatulate, 4-15 cm (petiole included), crenate and often also ±lobed or cleft, the cauline reduced and becoming sessile, deeply and distantly blunt-toothed or sometimes more closely toothed or subentire; heads solitary at the ends of the branches, naked-pedunculate, the disk 1-2 cm wide; rays 15-35, white, 1-2 cm; achenes terete, ca 10- ribbed; x=9; typically diploid, sometimes polyploid. Fields, roadsides, and waste places; native of Eurasia, naturalized throughout most of temp. N. Amer. May-Oct. (Leucanthemum l.; L. vulgare)
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
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