PLANT: Perennial herbs, rhizomatous, without tubers, to 1 m tall, sparsely to copiously armed with prickles, these to 5 mm long, thin, delicate; surfaces covered with stellate hairs throughout. LEAVES: alternate, simple, linear to oblonglanceolate, to 10 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, the margin entire, sinuate-repand or 6 CANOTIA Vol. 5 (1) 2009 shallowly lobed; blade coriaceous, the lower surface densely covered with stellate hairs; petiole to 5 cm long; base attenuate, oblique, or rounded; apex acute. INFLORESCENCE: panicles, 5-8-flowered; peduncles to 15 mm long. FLOWERS: zygomorphic (Fig. 3C); pedicels to 2 cm long; calyx to 1 cm long, the lobes 1/2 as long to as long as the tube, unequal, linear; corolla rotate, purple or sometimes white, to 3.5 cm in diam., having stellate hairs along the midveins of the outer surfaces of the corolla lobes; stamens equal, to 13 mm long, the anthers 4 times as long as the filaments, not adherant; style exceeding the anthers by 2-10 mm; stigma clavate, to 1 mm wide. FRUITS: to 1.5 cm in diam., not invested in the calyx, green with pale green to greenish grey markings when immature, yellow when mature, pendant; seeds lenticular, pale to dark brown, shiny and minutely pitted. NOTES: Disturbed areas: all cos. (Fig. 1E); below 1200 m (4000 ft); Mar-Oct; s and w U.S.; Mex. REFERENCES: Chiang, F. and L.R. Landrum. Vascular Plants of Arizona: Solanaceae Part Three: Lycium. CANOTIA 5 (1): 17-26, 2009.
Coarse, branching, rhizomatous perennial to 1 m, spineless or sparsely spiny, silvery-canescent with stellate hairs throughout; lvs linear to oblong or lance-oblong, 5-15 cm, a sixth to a third as wide, entire or merely sinuate; fls violet, 2 cm wide; 2n=24, 72. Dry soil; Mo. and Kans. to Tex. and Ariz., and occasionally adventive eastward.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
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Martin and Hutchins 1980, Kearney and Peebles 1969
Duration: Perennial Nativity: Native Lifeform: Subshrub General: Perennial herb or woody at base to 1 m tall, emerges from tough creeping rhizomes, foliage and stems canescent with finely stellate pubescence; stems, petioles and midribs of leaves sparsely to densely prickly with slender yellowish spines 1-5 mm long. Leaves: Petioles with shallowly longitudinal grooves on upper surface, 3-20 mm long, leaves linear, oblong, or lanceolate 4-25 mm wide, 3-10 cm long, broadly cuneate at base, obtuse to acute at apex, with prominent veins. Flowers: Cymose, peduncles, pedicels and calyces prickly with yellow spines, calyx ovate to lance-linear, corollas 2-3 cm diameter, violet or blue; anthers 7-9 mm long, subequal, yellow. Fruits: Berries globose 9-14 mm in diameter, yellow to brownish. Ecology: Found on sandy plains, arroyos, outwash slopes and disturbed areas from 1,000-5,500 ft (305-1676 m); flowers April-October. Distribution: WA and ID south to CA east to NC; south to S. Amer. ; also in Afrca, Europe, Asia and Australia. Notes: Rhizomatousness, spines, and distinct purple-blue flowers help identify this species. Ethnobotany: Used in a variety of medicinal capacities, considered to be highly toxic. Etymology: Solanum is Latin for quieting, reference to the narcotic properties of some species, elaeagnifolium refers to being like plants in the genus Eleagnus. Synonyms: None Editor: SBuckley 2010, FSCoburn 2015