Inflorescences usually secund racemes, rarely solitary flowers, 5-32 cm; axis yellowish to orange or reddish. Pedicels nodding at anthesis, erect in fruit, (finely hairy or glabrous, sometimes glandular-hairy. Flowers: sepals absent or 4-5, not similar to subtending bracts, spatulate to elliptic, 7-12 × 1-5 mm; petals 4-5, yellowish to orange or reddish, oblong, 8-17 × 4-8 mm, base narrowly saccate, margins ciliate to erose, apex acute to rounded, adaxial surfaces often hairy; nectary lobes 8-10, (paired), stout, not elongate or curved-cylindric; stamens 8-10; filaments sparsely hairy; anthers horizontal at anthesis, horseshoe-shaped, sacs of equal size; ovary 4-8 × 3-6 mm, usually hairy; style 2-10 × 1-2 mm, sparsely hairy; stigma umbilicate, 1.5-3 mm diam., often subtended by ring of crowded hairs. Capsules 4-5-segmented; segments often deciduous after seed dispersal, thin, 6-10 × 4-8 mm, without connecting, pinnate, vascular bundles when open. Seeds 0.5-1 mm, mostly membranously winged. 2n = 48. Flowering spring-fall. Moist to mesic or dry, mixed-deciduous and coniferous forests; 0-4300 m; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask.; Ala., Alaska, Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.; Mexico; Central America (Guatemala); Europe; c, e Asia.
Plant: Flowering stems to 30 cm tall, with 1 to usually several flowers, yellowish to orange or reddish, nodding, finely hairy, particularly in upper part of stem, smoothish below. Leaves: no green leaves Flowers: 1 to usually several flowers, with sepals (0-)4-5, these densely hairy inside, sparsely so outside; petals saccate at base, free from sepals; stigma umbilicate, surrounded by a ring of hairs beneath Fruit: FRUITS erect, globular capsules, 4-8 mm wide; SEEDS minute, spindle-shaped Misc: Coniferous forests in rich humus; 2100-2900 m (7000 - 9500 ft); Jul-Aug Notes: Flowering stems to 30 cm tall, yellowish to orange or reddish, nodding, finely hairy, particularly in upper part of stem, smoothish below REFERENCES: Haber, Erich. 1992. Monotropaceae. Ariz.-Nev. Acad. Sci. 26(1)2.
Stems 1-3 dm, often clustered, yellow, tawny, pink, or red, ±pubescent; raceme dense, at first nodding, erect at anthesis; fls 8-18 mm, the lower usually 4-merous, the terminal often larger and 5-merous; sep lanceolate, erect, unlike the basally saccate pet; anthers opening by a single cleft into 2 very unequal valves; style shorter than the ovary; stigma ±villous at the margin; 2n=16, 48. Moist or dry woods, usually in acid soil; interruptedly circumboreal, but not at high latitudes, in Amer. s. to Fla. and Mex. (Hypopitys americana)
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
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FNA 2009, Kearney and Peebles 1969, McDougal 1973
Duration: Perennial Nativity: Native Lifeform: Forb/Herb General: Herbaceous, pink (yellowish to orange or reddish) colored perennials without chlorophyll, 10-50 cm tall, stout, somewhat pubescent, parasitic on mycorrhizal fungus, fleshy roots form a dense mass that is completely enveloped by the fungus and has no direct contact with the soil. Leaves: Scalelike, the upper ones 10-15 mm long, the lower ones smaller. Flowers: Small, yellowish to orange or reddish like the stems, bell-shaped, petals 4 to 5, oblong, 10-12 mm long, pubescent, distinct, scalelike, tardily deciduous, often saccate (pouched) at the base, the upper ones 5-merous, the lower ones often 4-merous, sepals absent or 4-5, ciliate, spatulate to elliptic, 8-11 mm long, nectary lobes 8-10, (paired), stout, not elongate or curved-cylindric, stamens 8-10, filaments sparsely hairy, anthers horizontal at anthesis, horseshoe-shaped, of equal size, flowers borne rarely solitary or (more commonly) in a raceme, nodding at anthesis, erect in fruit. Fruits: Subglobose capsules, 5-7 mm long, with a persistent style 5-7 mm long, capsules with 4-5 segments, these often deciduous after seed dispersal, thin, without connecting, pinnate, vascular bundles when open. Seeds 0.5-1 mm, mostly membranously winged, numer Ecology: Found on moist to mesic or dry soils, in shady places among pines, firs, and aspens, from 0-14,000 ft (0-4276 m); flowering July-August. Distribution: British Columbia to the Alantic Coast, south to Mexico. Notes: Look for this odd-looking, red, pink, or yellowish plant with pendulous flowers of the same color among tree roots and on the forest floor near damp areas. Ethnobotany: The plant was used in a love potion. Synonyms: Hypopitys monotropa, many others, see Tropicos Editor: LCrumbacher 2011 Etymology: Monotropa comes from the Greek monos, "single," and tropos, "a turn" or trope, "a turning," thus meaning "turned or directed to one side," alluding to the one-sided inflorescence, while hypopithys comes from the Greek hypo, "under" and pitys, "the pine," thus found under pines.