tall tumblemustard, more...
[Norta altissima (L.) Britt., more]
Annuals; glabrous or pubescent. Stems erect, branched distally, (2-)4-12(-16) dm, sparsely to densely hirsute basally, glabrous or glabrate distally. Basal leaves rosulate; petiole 1-10(-15) cm; blade broadly oblanceolate, oblong, or lanceolate (in outline), (2-)5-20(-35) cm × (10-)20-80(-100) mm, margins pinnatisect, pinnatifid, or runcinate; lobes (3-)4-6(-8) on each side, oblong or lanceolate, smaller than terminal lobe, margins entire, dentate, or lobed. Cauline leaves similar to basal; distalmost blade with linear to filiform lobes. Fruiting pedicels usually divaricate, rarely ascending, stout, nearly as wide as fruit, (4-)6-10(-13) mm. Flowers: sepals ascending or spreading, oblong, (cucullate), 4-6 × 1-2 mm; petals spatulate, (5-)6-8(-10) × 2.5-4 mm, claw 3.5-6 mm; filaments 2-6 mm; anthers oblong, 1.5-2.2 mm. Fruits narrowly linear, usually straight, smooth, stout, (4.5-)6-9(-12) cm × 1-2 mm; valves glabrous; ovules 90-120 per ovary; style 0.5-2 mm; stigma prominently 2-lobed. Seeds 0.8-1 × 0.5-0.6 mm. 2n = 14. Flowering Apr-Sep. Roadsides, fields, pastures, waste grounds, disturbed sites, grasslands; 0-2700 m; introduced; Greenland; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Conn., D.C., Fla., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.; Europe; w Asia; nw Africa; introduced also in South America (Argentina, Chile).
Plant: Annual; stem 30-150 cm; branches many, especially above Leaves: petioled, < 15 cm, widely lanceolate; basal, lower cauline ± pinnately lobed to 1-pinnate, lobes or leaflets ± lanceolate, dentate; upper with thread-like to linear lobes or leaflets, terminal ± = lateral INFLORESCENCE: racemes, many-flowered; bracts 0 Flowers: bisexual; sepals 4, free, ± 4 mm, erect to ± spreading, outer 2 with erect horns at tip; petals 6-8 mm, pale yellow, free, clawed; stamens generally (2,4)6, generally 4 long, 2 short; ovary 1, superior, chambers generally 2, septum membranous, connecting 2 parietal placentas, style 1, stigma simple or 2-lobed; stigma 2-lobed Fruit: capsule with 2 deciduous valves, 5-10 cm, ± 1 mm wide, linear, rigid, branch-like; beak 0; pedicel generally spreading, 4-10 mm, width ± = or > fruit width; valves prominently veined;; Seeds many, ± 1 mm, generally 1 row per chamber; margin 0; embryonic root obliquely at back of 1 cotyledon Misc: Disturbed areas, fields, roadsides; < 2500 m.; May-Jul Notes: pedicels 4-10mm, spreading-ascending; petals clawed References: J.C. Hickman, ed. The Jepson Manual. W.B. McDougal. Seed plants of Northern Arizona. USDA website.ASU specimens.
Annual herb with a large taproot to 1 m tall Stem
: upright, usually branched near the apex, sometimes purplish at the nodes, hairy on the basal one-fourth, and with a waxy coating (glaucous) above. Flowers
: in compact, branched clusters (racemes), which are borne terminally and laterally on the stems. Racemes about 15 cm long. Flower stalks 7 - 8 mm long. Sepals four, upright to spreading, green, 5 - 6 mm long, 1.3 mm wide, linear, tips rounded, involute (rolled inward along the margins above). Petals four, exserted, spreading in the apical half, pale yellow, to 1 cm long, 2 - 3 mm wide at apex, spoon-shaped, bases narrowed, tips rounded. Stamens six, upright. Fruit
: a long, narrow pod (silique), ascending to upright, stalks thick (nearly as thick as pods), 5 - 10 cm long, 1 - 1.5 mm wide, angled, sickle-shaped, on stalks to 1 cm long. Lower leaves
: alternate, pinnately divided, stalked (purplish at base), leaf axes sparsely hairy. Segments five to eight pairs, 1 - 1.5 cm long, about 5 mm wide, awl- to lance-shaped, tips pointed, sometimes coarsely toothed and often involute (rolled inward along the margins above), shortly hairy. Terminal segments wider than the laterals and involute. Upper leaves
: alternate, pinnately divided, stalked, small, leaf axes sometimes sparsely short-hairy. Segments fewer than lower leaves, about 2.5 cm long, about 1 mm wide, linear, bases often with smaller divisions, pointed at the tip, involute (rolled inward along the margins above).
Similar species: No information at this time.
Flowering: mid-May to mid-October
Habitat and ecology: Introduced from Eurasia. Frequent on railroad ballast. It also grows in waste ground and recently disturbed sandy soils.
Occurence in the Chicago region: non-native
Etymology: Sisymbrium is the Ancient Greek name for various plants. Altissimum means very tall; tallest.
Author: The Morton Arboretum
Erect, to 1 m, commonly simple below and much-branched above, glabrous or sparsely pilose; lvs petioled, pinnatifid, the lower with 5-8 pairs of linear and entire to lanceolate and serrate segments, the upper small, with fewer segments; pet pale yellow, 6-8 mm; pedicels nearly or quite as thick as the fr, ascending, 5-10 mm; frs ascending or spreading, slender, 5-10 cm נ1-1.5 mm; 2n=14. Native of Eurasia, established as a weed of fields and waste places throughout most of the U.S. and adj. Can., especially northward. June-Aug. (Norta a.)
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
©The New York Botanical Garden. All rights reserved. Used by permission.
ERI 2003, Kearney and Peebles 1969, USDA FEIS accessed 2015, FNA
Duration: Annual Nativity: Non-Native Lifeform: Forb/Herb General: Weedy annual herb with stems 30-150 cm tall, generally highly branched, hirsute up to the inflorescence. Leaves: Basal leaves petioled, 7-15 cm long, deeply pinnately lobed with lanceolate segments. Stem leaves alternate, gradually reduced, petioled, deeply pinnately lobed with linear segments near top. Flowers: Raceme with sepals 4-5 mm long, outer two with erect horns, petals 5-9 mm long, pale yellow to nearly white. Fruits: Spreading siliques, linear and cylindric, 5-10 cm long, about 1 mm wide, branch-like. Ecology: Found in disturbed sites from 3,000-8,000 ft (914-2438 m); flowers April-September. Distribution: Native to Eurasia and natualized throughout most of the US and Canada. Also occurs in Africa and South America. Notes: This annual weed is distinguished by large, deeply pinnately lobed basal leaves and very narrow, delicate leaves on the upper part of the stem; long, narrow fruits that are only about as wide as their pedicels (fruiting stalks); and pale, cream or white colored flowers. S. irio is common annual weed in the genus; it has yellow flowers, is not as tall, with a maximum height of about 0.7 m, and the cauline leaves are the same size and shape as the basal leaves, or only a little reduced in size. S. linifolium also has yellow flowers, generally is not taller than 0.7m, and has much smaller leaves than S. altissima. Ethnobotany: Used as an emetic and the seeds were eaten in a porridge. Etymology: Sisymbrium is from a Greek name for some plants of the mustard family, while altissimum means very tall, or tallest. Synonyms: Norta altissima Editor: SBuckley, 2010; AHazelton 2015